Effect of donor type on volume of blood transfusions required after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
International journal of hematology. 2021
We reviewed blood product use in 729 consecutive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients at our center to assess the volume of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets required after allo-HCT. The median number of bags required by day 30 was 4 for RBCs (range 0-22) and 9.5 for platelets (0-53). Multivariate analysis showed that related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) required a significantly lower RBC transfusion volume by day 30 compared to unrelated bone marrow transplantation (UBMT). PBSCT from haplo-identical related donors and cord blood transplantation (CBT) required a significantly greater RBC transfusion volume. For platelet transfusion, related and unrelated PBSCT required a significantly lower volume than UBMT, and CBT a greater volume. Other factors independently associated with greater RBC transfusion volume were male sex, disease status other than complete remission, and major ABO mismatch. For platelet transfusion, these were male sex, disease status, and HCT-specific comorbidity index of 1. Although the burden of blood transfusions may not be the most important factor when choosing a donor type, our findings may provide a foundation for nationwide strategies to prepare blood products and inform aspects of national healthcare expenditures.
Outcome of iron reduction therapy in ex-thalassemics
PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0238793
There is limited data on iron reduction therapy (IRT) after successful allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) for patients with thalassemia major (TM). We present the long term outcome of IRT in 149 patients with TM who underwent aHSCT during January, 2001-December, 2012. The median age was 7 years (range:1-18) and 92 (61.7%) belonged to Pesaro class 3 with a median ferritin at aHSCT of 2480ng/ml (range:866-8921). IRT was reinitiated post-aHSCT at a median of 14 months (range:5-53) post aHSCT with phlebotomy alone in 10 (6.7%) patients or iron chelation alone in 60 (40.3%) patients while 79 (53%) were treated with the combination. Reduction in serum ferritin/month [absolute quantity (ng/ml/month) was as follows: 87 (range:33-195), 130 (range:17-1012) and 147 (range:27.7-1427) in the phlebotomy, chelation and combination therapy groups, respectively (p = 0.038). With a median follow up of 80 months (range:37-182), target ferritin level of <300ng/ml was achieved in 59(40%) while a level <500ng/ml was achieved in 88 patients (59%) in a median duration of 41 months of IRT (range: 3-136). Patients in class III risk category and higher starting serum ferritin levels (>2500ng/ml) were associated with delayed responses to IRT. Our data shows that IRT may be needed for very long periods in ex-thalassaemics to achieve target ferritin levels and should therefore be carefully planned and initiated as soon as possible after aHSCT. A combination of phlebotomy and iron chelators is more effective in reducing iron overload.
Efficacy of HLA virtual cross-matched platelet transfusions for platelet transfusion refractoriness in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
BACKGROUND Cross-matched platelet (cross-matched PLT) transfusion is effective for immune-mediated platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR), but is more costly and time-consuming for physical cross-match than using standard PLT units. Recent studies have reported the utility of human leucocyte antigens (HLA) virtual cross-matched PLT (HLA-matched PLT) that is defined as HLA-A/B matched or no antibody against donor-specific antigen. Here, we evaluated the effect of HLA-matched PLTs for PTR in post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Our study included a total of 241 PLTs in 16 patients who underwent HSCT at Okayama University Hospital between 2010 and 2017, receiving either HLA-matched or cross-matched PLTs. We calculated the 24-hour corrected count increments (CCI-24) to evaluate the effect of PLTs. A CCI-24 ≥ 4500 was considered to be a successful transfusion. RESULTS We analyzed 139 cross-matched PLTs and 102 HLA-matched PLTs. In the immune-mediated PTR, the rate of successful transfusion was 60.5% for cross-matched PLT and 63.4% for HLA-matched PLT (p = 0.825). On the other hand, the median CCI-24 for cross-matched PLT transfusions and HLA-matched PLT transfusions were 1856 and 5824 (p < 0.001), with a success rate of 28.1 and 54.1% in cases with non-immune-mediated PTR, respectively (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION The effectiveness of HLA-matched PLT is not inferior to cross-matched PLT. This result indicates that physical cross-match can be omitted in post HSCT PTR.
Mitigation strategies for anti-D alloimmunization by platelet transfusion in haematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: a survey of NCCN((R)) centres
Vox sanguinis. 2020
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES D-negative patients are at risk of developing an alloantibody to D (anti-D) if exposed to D during transfusion. The presence of anti-D can lead to haemolytic transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the newborn. Anti-D alloimmunization can also complicate allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with haemolysis and increased transfusion requirements. The goal of this study was to determine whether cancer centres have transfusion practices intended to prevent anti-D alloimmunization with special attention in patients considered for HSCT. METHODS AND MATERIALS To understand transfusion practices regarding D-positive platelets in D-negative patients with large transfusion needs, we surveyed the 28 cancer centres that are members of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network((R)) (NCCN((R)) ). RESULTS Nineteen centres responded (68%). Most centres (79%) avoid transfusing D-positive platelets to RhD-negative patients when possible. Four centres (21%) avoid D-positive platelets only in D-negative women of childbearing age. If a D-negative patient receives a D-positive platelet transfusion, 53% of centres would consider treating with Rh immune globulin (RhIg) to prevent alloimmunization in women of childbearing age. Only one centre also gives RhIg to all D-negative patients who are HSCT candidates including adult men and women of no childbearing age. CONCLUSION There is wide variation in platelet transfusion practices for supporting D-negative patients. The majority of centres do not have D-positive platelet transfusion policies focused on preventing anti-D alloimmunization specifically in patients undergoing HSCT. Multicentre, longitudinal studies are needed to understand the clinical implications of anti-D alloimmunization in HSCT patients.
Liberal Versus Restrictive Red Blood Cell Transfusion Thresholds in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Open Label, Phase III, Noninferiority Trial
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2020;:Jco1901836
PURPOSE Evidence regarding red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices and their impact on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes are poorly understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a noninferiority randomized controlled trial in four different centers that evaluated patients with hematologic malignancies requiring HCT who were randomly assigned to either a restrictive (hemoglobin [Hb] threshold < 70 g/L) or liberal (Hb threshold < 90 g/L) RBC transfusion strategy between day 0 and day 100. The noninferiority margin corresponds to a 12% absolute difference between groups in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) score relative to baseline. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured by FACT-BMT score at day 100. Additional end points were collected: HRQOL by FACT-BMT score at baseline and at days 7, 14, 28, 60, and 100; transplantation-related mortality; length of hospital stay; intensive care unit admissions; acute graft-versus-host disease; Bearman toxicity score; sinusoidal obstruction syndrome; serious infections; WHO Bleeding Scale; transfusion requirements; and reactions to therapy. RESULTS A total of 300 patients were randomly assigned to either restrictive-strategy or liberal-strategy treatment groups between 2011 and 2016 at four Canadian adult HCT centers. After HCT, mean pre-transfusion Hb levels were 70.9 g/L in the restrictive-strategy group and 84.6 g/L in the liberal-strategy group (P < .0001). The number of RBC units transfused was lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group (mean, 2.73 units [standard deviation, 4.81 units] v 5.02 units [standard deviation, 6.13 units]; P = .0004). After adjusting for transfusion type and baseline FACT-BMT score, the restrictive-strategy group had a higher FACT-BMT score at day 100 (difference of 1.6 points; 95% CI, -2.5 to 5.6 points), which was noninferior compared with that of the liberal-strategy group. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the transfusion strategies. CONCLUSION In patients undergoing HCT, the use of a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy threshold of 70 g/L was as effective as a threshold of 90 g/L and resulted in similar HRQOL and HCT outcomes with fewer transfusions.
Safety of bloodless autologous stem cell transplantation in Jehovah's Witness patients
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Due to the curative potential and improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered the standard of care for several hematologic malignancies, such as multiple myeloma, and lymphomas. ASCT typically involves support with blood product transfusion. Thus, difficulties arise when Jehovah's Witness patients refuse blood transfusions. In order to demonstrate the safety of performing "bloodless" ASCT (BL-ASCT), we performed a retrospective analysis of 66 Jehovah's Witnesses patients who underwent BL-ASCT and 1114 non-Jehovah's Witness patients who underwent transfusion-supported ASCT (TF-ASCT) at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between January 2000 and September 2018. Survival was compared between the two groups. Transplant-related complications, mortality, engraftment time, length of hospital stay, and number of ICU transfers were characterized for the BL-ASCT group. One year survival was found to be 87.9% for both groups (P = 0.92). In the BL-ASCT group, there was one death prior to the 30 days post transplant due to CNS hemorrhage, and one death prior to 100 days due to sepsis. Based on our data, BL-ASCT can be safely performed with appropriate supportive measures, and we encourage community oncologists to promptly refer JW patients for transplant evaluation when ASCT is indicated.
Combination treatment of rituximab and donor platelets infusion to reduce donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies for stem cells engraftment in haploidentical transplantation
Journal of clinical laboratory analysis. 2020;:e23261
BACKGROUND Donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSAs) in recipients is a risk factor for donor stem cell graft failure in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT), and the treatment to reduce the levels of DSAs is not unanimous. This study was to analysis the role of DSAs for stem cell engraftment and to discuss the effective treatment to reduce DSAs in haplo-HSCT. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated the levels of DSAs and the effect of the combination treatment of rituximab and donor platelets (PLTs) for donor stem cell engraftment in haplo-HSCT patients from June 2016 to March 2018 at our center. RESULTS Nine patients (11.5%) out of the total 78 patients were DSAs-positive and multivariate analysis revealed DSAs was the only factor that affected engraftment. Seven out of the 9 DSAs (+) patients received therapy: Four had antibodies against donor HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and were administered two therapeutic amounts of donor apheresis platelets (platelet count approximately 3-5 x 10(11) ) before donor stem cell infusion and the other three patients received a combination therapy of donor apheresis platelets and rituximab due to the antibodies against both donor HLA-I antigens and HLA class II (HLA-II) antigens. All the seven patients achieved donor stem cell engraftment successfully, and the DSAs levels decreased rapidly after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS DSAs is an important factor affecting engraftment in haplo-HSCT. Donor platelet transfusion is one simple and effective treatment for HLA-I DSAs, and a combination therapy should be administered if patients have both HLA-I and HLA-II antibodies.
Retrospective Evaluation of Relationship Between Iron Overload and Transplantation Complications in Pediatric Patient Who Underwent Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Due to Acute Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2020
BACKGROUND Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative therapy option for hematologic malignancies. Iron overload is common in this patient group and can impact short-term and long-term nonrelapse mortality. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective observational cohort study. AIMS To evaluate the effect of iron load on early and late HSCT outcomes in patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplasia in order to assess the necessity of reducing iron load. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sixty patients who underwent HSCT in pediatric stem cell transplantation unit between 2000 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. The patients were divided into those with pretransplantation serum ferritin levels above and below the median value of 1299 ng/mL. RESULTS Forty-two (70%) of the patients were male, mean ages of the low and high ferritin groups were 85.43+/-9.42 and 118.56+/-10.04 months, respectively. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) within the first 100 days and acute liver GVHD were significantly more common in the high ferritin group (P<0.011 for both). Ferritin level was not associated with rates of engraftment syndrome, veno-occlusive disease, early/late infection, relapse, or overall and disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS In our study, significant result especially in terms of acute liver GVHD, was important to emphasize the need to be more careful in terms of acute liver GVHD risk in early liver pathologies in patients with high levels of ferritin after transplantation. In future large studies may be helpful to explain the relationship between acute liver GVHD and high ferritin levels.
Transfusional iron overload in patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation: An underestimated problem requiring further consideration
Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. 2020;:102837
The assessment of platelet function by thromboelastometry as a point-of-care test to guide Intercept-treated platelet support in hemato-oncological patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients
BACKGROUND Pathogen inactivation (PI) techniques for platelet concentrates (PCs) are one of the latest innovations to improve blood safety and reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). An impaired function and in vivo recovery of platelets as well as an increased PC demand are concerns regarding these techniques. The intent of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic effect of PCs treated with the Intercept System by thromboelastometry (TEM) and to assess the clinical validity of its results in comparison to post-transfusion increase (PTI) and corrected count increment (CCI). STUDY-DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective-observational study included 47 patients (m:f = 25:22; median age: 54 years [21-70]) of our Bone Marrow Transplantation unit with hemato-oncological malignancies transfused with Intercept-treated PCs. Serial TEM measurements were performed just before and 1 hour after PC transfusion and were analyzed for their correlation with PTI and CCI as well as for clinical variables. RESULTS The majority of our patients had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (n = 41; 87%). In median 9 (1-50) PCs were transfused. Serial TEM, PTI, and CCI measurements were available for 150 transfusion episodes. The median platelet dose transfused was 2.65 x 10(11) /unit (1.8-6). The median CCI was 9.250 (0-28.000). We observed a significant improvement in TEM parameters (p < 0.05) after transfusion of PI PCs, which did not mandatory correlate with the 1-hour PTI and CCI. CONCLUSION Serial TEM measurements indicate the hemostatic effect of Intercept-treated PCs. The 1-hour PTI and CCI may not appropriately reflect the in vivo function of platelets after PI PC transfusion.