Rehabilitation Before and After Autologous Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (AHSCT) for Patients With Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Consensus Guidelines and Recommendations for Best Clinical Practice on Behalf of the Autoimmune Diseases Working Party, Nurses Group, and Patient Advocacy Committee of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)
Frontiers in neurology. 2020;11:556141
Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is increasingly used to treat people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Supported by an evolving evidence base, AHSCT can suppress active inflammation in the central nervous system and induce long-term changes in immune cell populations, thereby stabilizing, and, in some cases, reversing disability in carefully selected MS patients. However, AHSCT is an intensive chemotherapy-based procedure associated with intrinsic risks, including profound cytopenia, infection, and organ toxicity, accompanied by an on-going degree of immuno-compromise and general deconditioning, which can be associated with a transient increase in functional impairment in the early stages after transplantation. Although international guidelines and recommendations have been published for clinical and technical aspects of AHSCT in MS, there has been no detailed appraisal of the rehabilitation needed following treatment nor any specific guidelines as to how this is best delivered by hospital and community-based therapists and wider multidisciplinary teams in order to maximize functional recovery and quality of life. These expert consensus guidelines aim to address this unmet need by summarizing the evidence-base for AHSCT in MS and providing recommendations for current rehabilitation practice along with identifying areas for future research and development.
Maintenance Therapies for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas After Autologous Transplantation: A Consensus Project of ASBMT, CIBMTR, and the Lymphoma Working Party of EBMT
JAMA oncology. 2019
Importance: Maintenance therapies are often considered as a therapeutic strategy in patients with lymphoma following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) to mitigate the risk of disease relapse. With an evolving therapeutic landscape, where novel drugs are moving earlier in therapy lines, evidence relevant to contemporary practice is increasingly limited. The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) jointly convened an expert panel with diverse expertise and geographical representation to formulate consensus recommendations regarding the use of maintenance and/or consolidation therapies after auto-HCT in patients with lymphoma. Observations: The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements where at least 75% vote in favor of a recommendation was considered as consensus. The process included 3 online surveys moderated by an independent methodological expert to ensure anonymity and an in-person meeting. The panel recommended restricting the histologic categories covered in this project to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and follicular lymphoma. On completion of the voting process, the panel generated 22 consensus statements regarding post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies. The grade A recommendations included endorsement of: (1) brentuximab vedotin (BV) maintenance and/or consolidation in BV-naive high-risk HL, (2) rituximab maintenance in MCL undergoing auto-HCT after first-line therapy, (3) rituximab maintenance in rituximab-naive FL, and (4) No post auto-HCT maintenance was recommended in DLBCL. The panel also developed consensus statements for important real-world clinical scenarios, where randomized data are lacking to guide clinical practice. Conclusions and Relevance: In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a rigorous framework for developing consensus recommendations for post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies in lymphoma.
FDA Approval Summary: Lenalidomide as Maintenance Therapy After Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma
The oncologist. 2018
On February 22, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval for the use of lenalidomide as maintenance therapy after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) for patients with multiple myeloma. The approval was based on evidence from two randomized, blinded trials of maintenance lenalidomide versus placebo in patients with myeloma who had undergone auto-HSCT along with a third trial of lenalidomide versus no therapy. Each of the trials demonstrated superior progression-free survival for the patients treated with lenalidomide. The effect on overall survival was mixed, with one trial showing longer overall survival and another showing no effect. Subgroup analysis suggested better results for patients with International Staging System stage I or II disease compared with stage III disease. Safety evaluation did not reveal any new safety concerns. More second primary malignancies were observed in the lenalidomide arm compared with the placebo arm. The FDA concluded that lenalidomide maintenance showed a favorable benefit-to-risk ratio when used as maintenance therapy after auto-HSCT. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Prior to this approval, there were no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved maintenance therapies for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who have undergone autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT). Maintenance therapy with lenalidomide after auto-HSCT in patients with MM demonstrated an approximately 15- to 18-month advantage in progression-free survival compared with placebo at the time of the primary analysis. Patients treated with lenalidomide also appeared to have a survival advantage compared with patients treated with placebo. Because of the high rate of relapse of MM in patients following auto-HSCT and because MM is a serious and often fatal disease, these results appear to be clinically meaningful.
[Preventative and therapeutic relapse strategies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Guidelines from the Francophone society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC)]. [Review] [French]
Bulletin du Cancer. 2017;104(12S):S84-S98
Disease relapse remains the first cause of mortality of hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). The risk of recurrence is elevated in patients with high-risk cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities, as well as when allo-HCT is performed in patients with refractory disease or with persistent molecular or radiological (PET-CT scan) residual disease. Within the frame of the 7th annual workshops of the francophone society for bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy, the working group reviewed the literature in order to elaborate unified guidelines for the prevention and treatment of relapse after allo-HCT. For high risk AML and MDS, a post transplant maintenance strategy is possible, using hypomethylating agents or TKI anti-FLT3 when the target is present. For Philadelphia positive ALL, there was a consensus for the use of post-transplant TKI maintenance. For lymphomas, there are no strong data on the use of post-transplant maintenance, and hence a preemptive strategy is recommended based on modulation of immunosuppression, close follow-up of donor chimerism, and donor lymphocytes infusion. For multiple myeloma, even though the indication of allo-HCT is controversial, our recommendation is post transplant maintenance using bortezomib, due to its a good toxicity profile without increasing the risk of GVHD.Copyright © 2017 Societe Francaise du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.