The safety and efficacy of a novel hypo-fractionated total marrow and lymphoid irradiation before allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma and acute leukemia
Clinical and translational radiation oncology. 2021;26:42-46
PURPOSE Total body irradiation (TBI) has been widely utilized as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but is associated with significant toxicities. Targeted TBI using helical Tomotherapy allows precise and homogeneous tumor coverage and excellent sparing of organs at risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a novel hypo-fractionation strategy for patients receiving total marrow and involved lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) as part of the conditioning regimen before HSCT. METHODS AND MATERIALS 61 patients (7 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), 33 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 18 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 3 mixed acute leukemia (MAL)) received conditioning radiation treatment with TMLI (8 Gy to bone marrow, 10 Gy to involved field in 2 fractions per day) in conjunction with chemotherapy before transplantation. RESULTS The median age of 61 patients with TMLI was 24 (4-54) years. The prescribed dose covered the entire bone and involved target volume, and the dose of organs at risk (OAR) was reduced by 28%-78% of the prescription dose. Grade 1-2 nausea and vomiting occurred in 12 patients and grade 1-2 pain in 6 patients during radiotherapy. Fatigue occurred in 16 patients. 2 patients had diarrhea, enteritis, and 1 patient had fever. None of patient had grade 3-4 non-hematologic adverse reactions. Late (30 days after HSCT) grade 2 toxicities including reversible enteritis occurred in 3 patients. 5 patients developed infectious pneumonia. The 2 years progression-free survival (PFS) was 64.1% (95% CI: 0.16-0.22) and overall survival (OS) was 74.7% (95% CI: 0.19-0.24) for the 61 patients who had received their planned HSCT. The 2-year non-relapse mortality was significantly reduced to 5% in this patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that hypo-fractionated TMLI (8 Gy to bone marrow, 10 Gy to involved field in a single day) as a conditioning regimen for lymphoma and acute leukemia was feasible and the clinical outcomes were acceptable.
Comparison of total body irradiation versus non- total body irradiation containing regimens for de novo acute myeloid leukemia in children
With limited data comparing hematopoietic cell transplant outcomes between myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI) containing and non-TBI regimens in children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia, the aim of this study was to compare transplant-outcomes between these regimens. Cox regression models were used to compare transplant-outcomes after TBI and non-TBI regimens in 624 children transplanted between 2008 and 2016. Thirty two percent (n=199) received TBI regimens whereas 68% (n=425) received non-TBI regimens. Five-year non-relapse mortality was higher with TBI regimens (22% vs. 11%, p<0.0001) but relapse was lower (23% vs. 37%, p<0.0001) compared to non-TBI regimens. Consequently, overall (62% vs. 60%, p=1.00) and leukemia-free survival (55% vs. 52%, p=0.42) did not differ between treatment groups. Grade II-IV acute GVHD was higher with TBI regimens (56% vs. 27%, p<0.0001) but not chronic GVHD. The 3-year incidence of gonadal or growth hormone deficiency was higher with TBI regimens (24% vs. 8%, p<0.001) but there were no differences in late pulmonary, cardiac or renal impairment. In the absence of a survival advantage, the choice of TBI or non-TBI regimen merits careful consideration with the data favoring non-TBI regimens to limit the burden of morbidity associated with endocrine dysfunction.
Children with de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (n=624)
Myeloablative conditioning regimen containing total body irradiation (TBI) (n=199)
Non-TBI regimens (n=425)
Five-year non-relapse mortality was higher with TBI regimens (22% vs. 11%) but relapse was lower (23% vs. 37%) compared to non-TBI regimens. Consequently, overall (62% vs. 60%) and leukemia-free survival (55% vs. 52%) did not differ between treatment groups. Grade II-IV acute GVHD was higher with TBI regimens (56% vs. 27%) but not chronic GVHD. The 3-year incidence of gonadal or growth hormone deficiency was higher with TBI regimens (24% vs. 8%) but there were no differences in late pulmonary, cardiac or renal impairment.
[Optimization of ATG dose in haploid hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2020;41(7):557-563
Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of different doses of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in haplo-HSCT in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Methods: Malignant hematological patients treated at our hospital from March 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups as per three doses of ATG (6 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg) in the conditioning regimens. The transplant outcomes were compared in terms of the occurrence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) , infection, and survival. Results: ?Total 288 patients were enrolled in the study, including 182 men and 106 women, with a median age of 18 (6-62) years. Total 110 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , 128 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) , 8 with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) , 28 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) , and 14 with mixed cell leukemia (MAL) . There were 159 patients in the ATG-6 group, 72 in the ATG-7.5 group, and 57 in the ATG-9 group. The median follow-up time of post transplantation was 14 (0.2-74) months. ?The incidence of neutrophil engraftment (96.9% , 97.2% , and 96.5% , respectively) and platelet engraftment (92.5% , 87.5% , and 86% , respectively) did not significantly differ among the ATG-6, ATG-7.5, and ATG-9 groups (P=0.972, P=0.276) . The incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 14.5% , 11.1% , and 8.8% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.493) , chronic GVHD incidence in the three group was 8.8% , 14.3% and 12.0% , respectively (P=0.493) . The infection rates of CMV and EBV in the ATG-9 group (77.2% and 12.5% ) were significantly higher than those in the ATG-6 (43.3% and 3.5% ) , and ATG -7.5 group (44.4% and 1.5% ) (P<0.001 and P=0.033, respectively) . ?Among the three groups, there were no significant difference in the 3-year overall survival [68.5% (95% CI 60.3% -77.9% ) , 60.1% (95% CI 48.3% -74.8% ) , 64.7% (95% CI 51.9% -80.7% ) ], cumulative incidences of relapse [34.6% (95% CI 34.3% -35.1% ) , 38.0% (95% CI 37.3% -38.7% ) , 20.6% (95% CI 20.0% -21.3% ) ], disease-free survival [53.3% (95% CI 44.9% -63.4% ) , 51.9% (95% CI 41% -65.8% ) , 63.9% (95% CI 51.9% -78.7% ) ] and non-relapse mortality [24.2% (95% CI 23.8% -24.5% ) , 26.0% (95% CI 25.4% -26.6% ) , 23.6% (95% CI 26.3% -28.2% ) ] (P=0.648, P=0.165, and P=0.486 and P=0.955) . Conclusion: Low dose (6 mg/kg) of rATG may increase the risk of grade ?-? aGVHD, and a high dose (9 mg/kg) of ATG could significantly increase the risk of CMV and EBV infection. Median dose (7.5 mg/kg) of ATG is expected to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe aGVHD and viral infections without increasing the mortality.
Durable Survival Outcomes in Primary and Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma After High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Using a Thiotepa, Busulfan, and Cyclophosphamide Conditioning Regimen
Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia. 2020
BACKGROUND High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been investigated in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with CNS involvement and has shown promising results. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed of 48 consecutive patients who had undergone HDC/ASCT with TBC (thiotepa, busulfan, cyclophosphamide) conditioning for PCNSL (27 patients), secondary CNS lymphoma (SCNSL) (8 patients), or relapsed disease with CNS involvement (13 patients) from July 2006 to December 2017. Of the 27 patients with PCNSL, 21 had undergone ASCT at first complete remission (CR1). RESULTS The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 80.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69.9-92.9) and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 80.1% (95% CI, 69.2%-92.7%) among all patients. The 2-year PFS and OS rate for patients with PCNSL in CR1 was 95.2% (95% CI, 86.6%-100%) and 95.2% (95% CI, 86.6%-100%), respectively. On univariate analysis of the patients with PCNSL, ASCT in CR1 was the only variable statistically significant for outcome (P = .007 for PFS; P = .008 for OS). Among patients with SCNSL or CNS relapse, the 2-year PFS and OS rate were comparable at 75.9% (95% CI, 59.5%-96.8%) and 75.3% (95% CI, 58.6%-98.6%), respectively. The most common side effects were febrile neutropenia (89.6%; of which 66.7% had an infectious etiology identified), nausea/vomiting (85.4%), diarrhea (93.8%), mucositis (89.6%), and electrolyte abnormalities (89.6%). Four patients (8.3%) died of treatment-related overwhelming infection; of these patients, 3 had SCNSL. CONCLUSION HDC and ASCT using TBC conditioning for both PCNSL and secondary CNS NHL appears to have encouraging long-term efficacy with manageable side effects.
Predicting non-relapse mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation during first remission of acute myeloid leukemia
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive system for predicting non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) during first complete remission (CR) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). After dividing 2344 eligible patients randomly into a training set and a validation set, we first identified and scored five parameters, that is, age, sex, performance status, HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI), and donor type, on the basis of their impact on non-relapse mortality for patients in the training set. The non-relapse mortality-J (NRM-J) index using the sum of these scores was then applied to patients in the validation set, resulting in a clear differentiation of non-relapse mortality, with expected 2-year rates of 11%, 16%, 27%, and 33%, respectively (P?0.001). The estimated c-statistic was 0.67, which was significantly higher than that of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation score (0.60, P?=?0.002) and the HCT-CI (0.57, P?0.001). The NRM-J index showed a significant association with overall survival, but not with relapse. Our findings demonstrate that the NRM-J index is useful for predicting post-transplant non-relapse mortality for patients with AML in first CR, for whom the decision of whether to perform allogeneic HCT is critical.
Decitabine prior to salvaged cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome not in remission
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2020
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE Many refractory/relapsed haematological malignancies, in non-remission state, still have poor prognosis even after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recently, decitabine or umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) seemed to be effective in these patients. However, few studies have added decitabine to myeloablative conditioning regimens for UCBT in patients with haematological malignancies not in remission. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) using decitabine as part of a myeloablative conditioning regimen prior to salvaged unrelated UCBT at our centre. METHODS We enrolled 20 consecutive patients with refractory/relapsed AML/MDS between 2013 and 2018. All patients were in non-remission state before transplantation. All transplants were performed with decitabine as part of the myeloablative conditioning regimen, which was decitabine + fludarabine/busulfan/cyclophosphamide. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION All patients achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Incidence of grade III/IV acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 20.0%, which was also decreased compared to non-decitabine group (P = .025). The median follow-up time after UCBT was 29 months (range 14-64 months). The 2-year probability of GVHD-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) was higher in the decitabine group. Univariate showed that the decitabine group was associated with a higher GRFS than the non-decitabine group. The estimated probability of overall survival and relapse was 55% and 20.0%, respectively. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that addition of decitabine as part of the myeloablative conditioning regimen prior to UCBT for refractory/relapsed AML/MDS in patients who are not in remission is safe and might be an effective treatment option.
Relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: clinical features and outcomes
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Posttransplant relapse represents the greatest obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study investigated clinical features and outcomes of posttransplant relapse of AML based on data for 1265 patients with AML suffering relapse after allogeneic HCT conducted during complete remission (CR). Relapse occurred at a median of 6.1 months. The incidence rate of relapse peaked at 29.0 per 100 patient-years during the first 3-6 months period post transplant, after which the rate declined over time, and after 3 years remained consistently at less than 1 per 100 patient-years. The probability of overall survival (OS) after posttransplant relapse was 19% at 2 years, with 68% of deaths being attributed to leukemia. The interval from transplantation to relapse was identified as the strongest indicator for OS. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and second allogeneic HCT (HCT2) were administered to 152 (12%) and 481 (38%) patients, respectively. Landmark analyses showed some signs of survival benefit when these procedures were performed during CR, but no benefit was gained when performed during non-CR. Our findings clarify clinical features of posttransplant relapse of AML, and indicate the urgent need for developing effective bridging to cellular therapies.
The value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the prediction of clinical outcomes of patients with acute leukemia treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Oncology letters. 2020;20(5):175
The present study aimed to determine whether (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed before and/or after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) can predict clinical outcomes in acute leukemia (AL). A total of 79 examinations comprising 72 patients with AL who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT before and/or after allo-HSCT were retrospectively enrolled between January 2011 and January 2019. Outcomes were assessed using overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 63 examinations were PET-positive, while 16 examinations were PET-negative. Increased BM and splenic (18)F-FDG uptake were observed in 24 (19/79) and 14% (11/79) of examinations, respectively. (18)F-FDG-avid lymph nodes were observed in 38% (30/79) of examinations. E(N)E(M)E(S) involvement was detected in 44% (35/79) of examinations. The presence of E(N)E(M)E(S) involvement [OS hazard ratio (HR), 6.399; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.843-22.224; P=0.003; post-HSCT OS HR, 7.203; 95% CI, 1.510-34.369; P=0.013; DFS HR, 3.671; 95% CI, 1.145-11.768; P=0.029], post-transplantation minimal residual disease (DFS HR, 4.381; 95% CI, 1.594-12.040; P=0.004; pre-HSCT OS HR, 11.455; 95% CI, 1.336-98.179; P=0.026) and disease status (OS HR, 0.330; 95% CI, 0.128-0.848; P=0.021; post-HSCT OS HR, 0.195; 95% CI, 0.050-0.762; P=0.019; DFS: HR, 0.278; 95% CI, 0.091-0.851; P=0.025) could serve as an adverse prognostic factor in patients with AL treated with allo-HSCT. (18)F-FDG PET/CT before and/or after allo-HSCT was a predictor for OS and DFS in patients with AL. E(N)E(M)E(S) involvement detected using (18)F-FDG PET/CT may help identify patients with AL who are likely to have unfavorable clinical outcomes.
Assessment of chimerism and immunomodulation to prevent post-transplantation relapse in childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia: is it the right approach?
Pediatric hematology and oncology. 2020;:1-10
Relapse of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) after first allogenic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a fatal complication. Sixty-five children transplanted for AML were included in a prospective national study from June 2005 to July 2008 to explore the feasibility of preemptive immune modulation based on the monitoring of blood chimerism. Relapse occurred in 23 patients (35%). The median time between the last complete chimerism and relapse was 13.5 days (2-138). Prompt discontinuation of cyclosporin and the administration of donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) based on chimerism monitoring failed as a preemptive tool, either for detecting relapse or certifying long-term remission.
Addition of thiotepa to total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
Total body irradiation (TBI)/cyclophosphamide (CY) is a standard of care conditioning regimen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study sought to identify whether the addition of thiotepa (TT) to TBI/CY improves HSCT outcomes for pediatric patients with ALL. A retrospective analysis was performed on 347 pediatric ALL patients who underwent HSCT between 1995 and 2015, with 242 receiving TBI/CY/TT and 105 patients receiving TBI/CY. There were no statistical differences in age, donor source, or CR status between the two groups. Comparison of the TBI/CY/TT versus TBI/CY groups demonstrated no difference in transplant related mortality at 1 (11% vs 11%), 5 (13% vs 16%) or 10 years (16% vs 16%). There was lower relapse in the TBI/CY/TT group at 1 (14% vs 26%), 5 (24% vs 36%), 10 (26% vs 37%) and 15 years (26% vs 37%) (p?=?0.02), but was not statistically significant on multivariate analysis. The TBI/CY/TT group showed a trend toward improved disease free survival (DFS) at 5 (59% vs 47%), 10 (56% vs 46%) and 15 years (49% vs 40%) (p?=?0.05) but was not statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Comparing overall survival at 5 (62% vs 53%), 10 (57% vs 50%) and 15 years (50% vs 44%) demonstrated no statistical difference between the two groups. The addition of thiotepa to TBI/CY demonstrated no increase in transplant related mortality for pediatric ALL HSCT, but was unable to demonstrate significant benefit in disease control. Minimal residual disease status remained the key risk factor impacting both relapse and DFS. More studies are warranted to better clarify the benefits of using thiotepa in conditioning for ALL HSCT.