Variation in clinical practice affects veno-occlusive disease (VOD) management, mainly in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Disputes about diagnostic criteria, treatment and prophylaxis, due to the lack of high-quality data, are at the base of this variability. With the aim of limiting inconsistency in clinical care, thus improving both patient outcomes and data collection reliability, the
Italian Society of Stem cell transplant (GITMO) launched a collaborative effort to formulate recommendations based on integration of available evidence and expert's consensus. A systematic method, according to US National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines and Italian National System for Guidelines, was used. Twenty-nine recommendations were approved with a strong (20) or weak (9) level of agreement, while 26 were rejected. In particular, the Panel pointed out the need to achieve an early diagnosis, encouraging the adoption of EBMT criteria and the prompt use of ultrasonography. Moreover, our experts strongly recommended in favour of prophylactic use of ursodeoxicolic acid (UDCA). As soon as a VOD diagnosis is established, treatment with defibrotide should be started for at least 21d. A number of areas of uncertainty, particularly concerning risk stratification and use of diagnostic tools such as elastography has been identified and discussed.