OBJECTIVES To determine whether treatment with tacrolimus plus sirolimus (Tac/Sir) as a prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease worsens severe oral mucositis and delays healing compared to cyclosporine plus methotrexate (CsA/Mtx) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The study comprised 141 patients: 73 randomized to receive Tac/Sir and 68, to receive CsA/Mtx. The oral mucositis assessment scale and toxicity grading
according to WHO were used to assess the severity, peak, and duration of oral mucositis from the day -3 to day 24 post-transplant. RESULTS Eighty-seven patients developed oral mucositis in the first 24 days post-transplant. No significant difference in oral mucositis severity between the Tac/Sir and CsA/Mtx groups was observed. The peak oral mucositis score occurred on day 10 in both groups. Although oral mucositis scores had returned to baseline in the CsA/Mtx group on day 24 post-transplant, no significant difference compared with the Tac/Sir group was found. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of tacrolimus/sirolimus as a graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increased neither the incidence nor severity of oral mucositis compared with cyclosporine/methotrexate. Furthermore, oral mucositis healing was not prolonged and followed the same time pattern as cyclosporine/methotrexate.