Background: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of conditioning therapy implemented before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The role of oral microbiome in OM is not fully elucidated. Objective: To determine oral microbiome profile changes post-conditioning in HSCT patients who developed moderate OM, or mild to no OM. Design: Patient groups were: Muc0-1 with OM-score = 0-1 (43
paired samples) and Muc2 with WHO OM-score = 2 (36 paired samples). Bacterial DNA was isolated from oral samples (saliva, swabs of buccal mucosa, tongue, and supragingival plaque) at pre-conditioning (T 0 ), post-conditioning mucositis onset (T Muc ), and one-year post-conditioning (T Year ). 16S-rRNA gene next-generation sequencing was used to determine the relative abundance (RA) of >700 oral species. Alpha-diversity, beta-diversity and linear discriminant analyses (LDA) were performed Muc2 versus Muc0-1. Results: Muc2 oral microbiome alpha- and beta-diversity differed between T 0 and T Muc . Muc2 alpha-diversity and Muc0-1 beta-diversity did not differ between T 0 and T Year . T 0 to T Muc LDA scores were significant in Muc2 for Gammaproteobacteria. For Muc2 patients, the average RA decreased for Haemophilus parainfluenza, a species known as mucosal surfaces protector, but increased for Escherichia-Shigella genera. Conclusions: Post-conditioning OM might contribute to long-term oral microbiome changes affecting Gammaproteobacteria, in HSCT patients.