Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of ruxolitinib (RUX) on steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (SR-GVHD) patients.Methods: Studies published before January 2019 were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials.Gov and Web of Science databases.Results: Sixteen cohort studies (414 adults) were included whose methodological quality ranged from poor to good. Pooled outcomes such as the response rates, steroid dose
reduction, 1-year overall survival, overall infection, and grade 3 to 4 cytopenia were calculated separately for adults with steroid-refractory acute GVHD (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Further, the overall response rates were analyzed according to the affected organ. Adults with aGVHD as well as cGVHD showed high response with RUX, and steroid dose reduction was observed in both cases. Infection rates and cytopenia were important safety concerns for both aGVHD and cGVHD.Conclusion: Notwithstanding the need of randomized controlled trials to confirm the effect of RUX on SR-GVHD, response rates among adults with aGVHD and cGVHD seem to be high with use of RUX as a salvage treatment, particularly in cases with gastrointestinal and cutaneous involvement. However, high rates of myelosuppression and infection remain a cause for concern regardless of aGVHD or cGVHD.