BACKGROUND Post-Cy administration for GVHD prophylaxis in unmanipulated haploidentical HSCT has resulted in improved outcomes in recent years. Studies in children are lacking and accordingly we present the outcomes of 62 haploidentical transplantation for high-risk children. PROCEDURE We retrospectively assessed 62 transplants in 60 patients who underwent haploidentical-related HSCT with unmanipulated stem cells and for whom Post-Cy was used for
GVHD prophylaxis. RESULTS Myeloid reconstitution was achieved on day + 30 for 57 of the 62 patients. The median follow-up of the surviving 39 patients (63%) was 26 months, with a range of 6-57 months. The OS and EFS at 2 years were 64.6% (52.0%-77.2%, 95% CI) and 58.9% (46.1%-71.7%, 95% CI), respectively. The only factor in our multivariate analysis that contributed to an inferior EFS was a poor remission status prior to HSCT (HR, 8.30; 1.08-63.56; P = 0.041, 95% CI). CONCLUSION The results of T-cell replete haploidentical transplantation with Post-Cy GVHD prophylaxis in high-risk pediatric patients are promising. However, further research is needed to determine the factors that have affect HLA compatibility for predicting the success of haploidentical transplantations.