Engraftment syndrome (ES) is a known complication of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant during neutrophil recovery. There is a limited amount of data available comparing the incidence of ES with post-transplant G-CSF versus GM-CSF, specifically in patients with multiple myeloma. Our retrospective review of 156 patients at a single center showed that GM-CSF was associated with a higher incidence of
ES compared with G-CSF (32% vs. 8% of patients, p<0.001) and that development of ES was associated with 32.9% (p<0.001) longer hospital stay. This suggests that the choice of growth factor could possibly contribute to the development of ES and the associated costs of increased medical care.