Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has become a well-established treatment option for many patients suffering from malignant and non-malignant diseases. In the past decade, high-resolution HLA-typing, remission surveillance, pre-emptive immune intervention, and standardisation in supportive care measures have substantially improved transplant outcomes. This retrospective study evaluated transplant procedures in 162 paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 124)
or acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 38) who received their first alloHSCT in our institution over an 11-year period. We observed a significant reduction in risk of non-relapse mortality (NRM) over time (HR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.98; P = 0.05), the 4-year NRM estimate decreased from 20% in 2005-2008 to 7% in 2012-2016 (P = 0.02) and an increase in survival after relapse. There was no significant difference in patients who received a graft from a sibling, haplo, or an unrelated donor with regard to their overall survival (P = 0.45), event-free survival (P = 0.61), and non-relapse mortality (P = 0.19). Our data suggest that a specific transplant infrastructure with a highly experienced team in an accredited transplant centre likely contributes to better transplant outcomes for acute leukaemia patients in complete remission regardless of donor type.