OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND Noninfection-related fever can occur after peripheral blood stem cell infusion in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of fever and characterize some clinical features of affected patients. METHODS A retrospective case-series study with 40 patients who received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was carried out. RESULTS Thirty-three
patients (82.5%) developed fever; no baseline characteristic was associated with its development. Median time to fever onset was 25.5h (range, 9.5-100h) and median peak temperature was 39.0degreeC (range, 38.1-40.5degreeC). Not a single patient developed hemodynamic or respiratory compromise that required admission to the intensive care unit. Fever was not explained by infection in any case. Ninety-one percent of the febrile episodes resolved within 96h of cyclophosphamide administration. No significant difference in overall survival, event-free survival, or graft versus host disease-free/relapse-free survival was found in the group of febrile individuals after peripheral blood stem cell infusion. CONCLUSION Fever after peripheral blood stem cell infusion in this clinical setting was common; it usually subsides with cyclophosphamide administration. The development of fever was not associated with an adverse prognosis.