Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment for most children with osteopetrosis (OP). Timing of HSCT is critical; therefore, umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an attractive option. We analyzed outcomes after UCBT in 51 OP children. Median age at UCBT was 6 months. Seventy-seven percent of the cord blood grafts had 0 or 1 HLA disparity
with the recipient. Conditioning regimen was myeloablative (mostly busulfan-based in 84% and treosulfan-based in 10%). Antithymocyte globulin was given to 90% of patients. Median number of total nucleated and CD34+ cells infused was 14 x 107/kg and 3.4 x 105/kg, respectively. Median follow-up for survivors was 74 months. Cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil recovery was 67% with a median time to recovery of 23 days; 33% of patients had graft failure, 81% of engrafted patients had full donor engraftment, and 19% had mixed donor chimerism. Day 100 CI of acute graft-versus-host disease (grades II to IV) was 31% and 6-year CI of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 21%. Mechanical ventilation was required in 28%, and veno-occlusive disease was diagnosed in 16% of cases. Six-year overall survival rate was 46%. Comparative studies with other alternative donors should be performed to evaluate whether UCBT remains a valid alternative for children with OP without an HLA-matched donor. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.